In KS1 our approach teaches the conceptual understanding needed to become an effective reader:
that letters are spellings of sounds: visual language is a representation of spoken language
that a spelling can contain one, two, three, or four letters - examples are: s a t, f i sh, n igh t and w eigh t
that there is more than one way of spelling most sounds: the sound 'ae', spelt as in 'name', can be represented as in 'table', in 'rain', in 'eight', in 'play', and so on
that many spellings can represent more than one sound: can be the sound 'e' in 'head', 'a-e' in 'break', or 'ee' in 'seat'
Within this conceptual framework, we teach the factual knowledge required to become an effective reader and speller: the approximately 176 spellings that represent the 44 or so sounds in English, starting with the most simple one-to-one correspondences.
Reading and spelling also requires expertise in the skills necessary to make use of the alphabet code and pupils need to be able to:
segment, or separate sounds in words
blend, or push sounds together to form words
manipulate sounds: take sounds out and put sounds into words
Hazel Wood Infant School uses Ruth Miskin Read Write Inc as the basis for delivering phonics within KS1.